Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (2022)

By: Eric Blinn | Updated: 2022-04-07 | Comments (7) | Related: More > Linked Servers


Problem

I see there is an option in SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) for Linked Servers andI want to learn more about what they do and how they work.

Solution

Linked Servers are a method by which a SQL Server can talk to another ODBC compliantdatabase, such as another SQL Server instance or an Oracle database, with a directT-SQL query.

There are several important settings to know when setting up a Linked Server.This tip will cover creating a Linked Server to another SQL Server instance usingthe SSMS GUI along with appropriate security options. It will also show how to usethe Linked Server in a T-SQL statement. There is agreat library of more advanced topics available once the basics have been mastered.

Creating a SQL Server Linked Server

In SQL Server Management Studio, in the Object Explorer pane, expand the "ServerObjects" section, right click on "Linked Servers" and choose "NewLinked Server…" from the menu.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (1)

New Linked Server - General Page

That will bring up a screen that looks like the screen below. Choose the servertype as SQL Server and type in the name of the other instance of SQL Server. Inthis example the connection will be made to a named instance of SQL Server on thesame machine. This is certainly allowed, but more commonly the connection is madeto another machine entirely. The Linked Server name is specified as theServerName\InstanceName. In the example below I am connecting to the localserver and the instance name is "SECURITY_TEST".

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (2)

New Linked Server - Security Page

Next, move from the General page to the Security page using the menu on the left.This page allows the administrator to tell this SQL Server how to authenticate tothe other instance. The top half of the screen allows for individual logins to begiven access to use the Linked Server.

There are 2 methods to authenticate users. The first is to select a login forthem to use when using the Linked Server. In the screenshot below the Eric userwill automatically log in to the secondary server as the login LinkedServerTeston the other instance. This credential is stored within the SQL Server Engine andis encrypted. One the second row, the LinkedServerTest login (a SQL Login) the Impersonatebox is checked. For a SQL account, this tells SQL Server to attempt to log in using the same username and password on the Linked Server as it did on the original server. Impersonation of a Windows Login can also be done but requires proper Kerberos, SPNs, and proper delegation rules be set up on the domain.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (3)

Now focus on the bottom half of the screen. There are 4 options available. Whicheveroption is selected here will apply to any user not listed in the top section.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (4)

OptionDescription
Not be madeThis will give an error to any user attempting to use the Linked Serverthat isn’t in the list above. In order to select this option, theremust be at least 1 login in the top half of the screen.

This isthe error all other users will get.

Msg 7416, Level 16, State 1,Line 1
Access to the remote server is denied because no login-mappingexists.

Be made without using a security contextThis will send an anonymous connection to the Linked Server and likelywon’t provide any access to the secondary server.
Be made using the login’s current security contextThis is the same as placing every single user in the top section withthe impersonate checkbox checked.
Be made using this security context:This option will demand a login and password be entered and will functionthe same as if every single user was added to the top section and giventhe exact same username and password. It is the least secure method to setup a Linked Server as anyone with any access to the first SQL Server willbe able to use the Linked Server utilizing the saved credentials.

New Linked Server - Server Options Page

There are also settings on the Options page, but for simple queries these settingscan be left as the default values as shown below.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (5)

The settings do not need to be changed in most use cases and this table willexplain what the settings do.

OptionDescription
Collation CompatibleDefault is false. This can be set to true if the target serveruses the exact same collation as the principal server. The change can improve performance of some queries by allowing remote column comparisonson text type columns.
Data AccessDefault is True. When false all individual remote query executionswill fail. This setting is independent from RPC Out. In a scenariowhere ONLY remote procedure calls need to be executed this setting may bechanged to false while RPC Out remains true.
RPC / RPC OutThis stands for Remote Procedure Call and allows you to run storedprocedures on the Linked Server. RPC enables Remote ProcedureCalls from the specified server and RPC OUT enables Remote ProcedureCalls to the specified server.
Use Remote Collation / Collation NameDefault is False. When false the local server collation will beused on all remote queries. When true the collation of the remoteserver will be used on queries. If true and the remote server is NOT a SQLServer then the local server cannot automatically look up the proper collationvalue. In this case use the Collation Name setting to type in theremote server collation.
Connection TimeoutDefault is 0. When non-zero, this is the number of seconds towait before timing out when connecting to a linked server. When 0 then thevalue is actually read from a server default that can be found by runningthis command.
exec sp_configure 'remote login timeout (s)'
Query TimeoutDefault is 0. When non-zero, this is the number of seconds towait before timing out a query running against a linked server. When 0 thenthe value is actually read from a server default that can be found by runningthis command.
exec sp_configure 'remote query timeout (s)'
Distributor / Publisher / SubscriberThese settings are only used when the Linked Server is being used tosupport replication.
Lazy Schema ValidationDefault is False. When false the schema of a remote query is checkedbefore each query execution. Any changes to the remote schema aredetected in advance and a proper query plan can be recreated to accountfor the change. When true the schema is not validated until the moment ofexecution. If the change in remote schema renders the query plan invalidthat will cause a runtime error.
Enable Promotion of Distributed TransactionsDefault is True. When enabled any remote query that changes datawill invoke the DTC (Distributed Transaction Coordinator). This processprotects such queries by allowing both servers to have a shared transactionthat either completes 100% or 0% - just like a regular transaction withina local query. When disabled the DTC is not invoked and a failed remotequery can fail and not be completely rolled back.

Querying Data Over a SQL Server Linked Server

To read data from a Linked Server any tables or views must be referenced usinga 4-part identifier consisting of the Linked Server name, database name, schemaname, and object name – in that order.

For example:

SELECT * FROM [.\SECURITY_TEST].master.sys.databasesSELECT * FROM [.\SECURITY_TEST].WideWorldImporters.Sales.Orders
  • First the Linked Server name is provided which is [.\SECURITY_TEST] forour example. In this example it must be bracketed due its format. Not all LinkedServer names must be bracketed.
  • Next is the database name, master and WideWorldImporters respectively.
  • Third is the schema name, sys and Sales respectively.
  • Lastly, the object name is listed. In these examples the objects are databasesand Orders.

That example is pretty ugly due to the nature of the Linked Server name. Luckily,this great tip shows how to make the names easier to read in scenarios likethis.

Once listed in a FROM clause these tables and views can be treated in the exactsame way any as other local table. They can be queried, aliased, joined, andif proper permissions are set, they can be modified using insert, update, and deletestatements.

Calling Stored Procedures Over a Linked Server

For the purposes of this demo, this small procedure was created in the masterdatabase on the target linked server.

USE masterGOCREATE PROCEDURE dbo.SQLTips1 AS SELECT 'I was able to be called'; 

The procedure is then executed on the primary instance using this command whichfollows the same 4 part identifier schema as the statements in the prior section.

EXEC [.\Security_Test].master.dbo.SQLTips1

However, instead of the expected result an error is raised.

(Video) Configuring Linked Servers in SQL Server

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (6)

RPC stands for Remote Procedure Call. By default, Linked Servers are notable to make stored procedure calls. This is easily remedied by enabling asingle setting on the Linked Server. Browse to the Linked Server properties,choose Server Options and the 4thoption in the list will be RPC Out. Simply change that value to True and clickOK.

The setting labeled RPC is NOT the value that needs to be changed. Thiscan seem confusing since the error message seems to name it specifically, but thatis actually a legacy setting that does not enable RPC calls.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (7)

Rerunning the procedure now produces a much better result.

Understanding SQL Server Linked Servers (8)

SQL Server Linked Server Limitations

Linked Servers can be very useful, but there are a few limitations of which tobe aware before implementing them. Linked Servers cannot be used to call tablevalued or scalar functions. Also, the truncate command is not allowed to becalled using a Linked Server.

SQL Server Linked Server Use Cases

The performance of Linked Servers is not always great, especially with largedata sets and lots of joins between local and linked tables. But they can be veryuseful for querying smaller datasets.

Sometimes an ETL requirement for a smaller dataset can be met using a LinkedServer rather than an ETL tool like SSIS. When the rows involved number in the thousandsor lower 10s of thousands a Linked Server based ETL might be able to complete inless time than it takes to start the SSIS engine.

Next Steps
  • There is a whole family of advanced Linked Server tips on MSSQLTips.com
  • Making Linked Server names easier to read

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About the author

Eric Blinn is the Sr. Data Architect for Squire Patton Boggs. He is also a SQL author and PASS Local Group leader.

View all my tips

Article Last Updated: 2022-04-07

FAQs

How do linked servers work in SQL Server? ›

Linked servers enable the SQL Server Database Engine and Azure SQL Managed Instance to read data from the remote data sources and execute commands against the remote database servers (for example, OLE DB data sources) outside of the instance of SQL Server.

How do I query data from a linked server? ›

1 Open SQL Server Management Studio, navigate to the Object Explorer pane, and select Server Objects > Linked servers > Providers. 2 Right-click mrOledb. Provider and select Properties. 3 Select allow in process, and then click OK.

Is Openquery faster than linked server? ›

The OPENQUERY is faster than the linked server because when we use the linked server, the SQL Server breaks the query into local and remote queries. The local queries are executed on the local server, and remote queries will be sent to the remote server.

How do I get a list of linked servers in SQL Server? ›

If you find yourself needing to use Transact-SQL to get a list of all linked servers in SQL Server, below are two ways you can go about doing this. In the first example I use the sp_linkedservers system stored procedure to return the linked servers. In the second example I use the sys. servers system catalog view.

How do you check if a linked server is being used? ›

Use Sql Profiler

Run SQL server Profiler for a month against the target server (on a spare machine) to see if the linked server login name appears, this is the login name of the connection set up in the linked server configuration.

When would you use a linked server? ›

A linked server is used to connect to another (remote) database or file (Xls, CVX) using SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) and discover the data or objects. You can write SQL queries from your SSMS directly on a database on another machine.

How do I get a list of tables from a linked server? ›

In SQL Server you can use the sp_tables_ex system stored procedure to return table information about the tables from a specified linked server. The simplest way to execute this stored procedure is to pass the name of the linked server.

How can you get data from another server in SQL Server query? ›

Follow these steps to create a Linked Server:
  1. Server Objects -> Linked Servers -> New Linked Server.
  2. Provide Remote Server Name.
  3. Select Remote Server Type (SQL Server or Other).
  4. Select Security -> Be made using this security context and provide login and password of remote server.
  5. Click OK and you are done !!

How do I query a remote SQL Server database? ›

In the Protocol and Ports dialog box, select TCP. Select Specific local ports, and then type the port number of the instance of the Database Engine, such as 1433 for the default instance. Click Next. In the Action dialog box, select Allow the connection, and then click Next.

What is the alternative to linked server? ›

The alternative to using Linked Servers is to use the OPENQUERY statement, also known as a pass through query. When using an OPENQUERY statement, the WHERE clause gets executed at the remote server and the resultant (mapped) records traverse over the wire instead of an entire sourced data set.

Which is faster CTE or subquery? ›

The performance of CTEs and subqueries should, in theory, be the same since both provide the same information to the query optimizer. One difference is that a CTE used more than once could be easily identified and calculated once. The results could then be stored and read multiple times.

Are Linked Servers a security risk? ›

Linked Servers are an easy way to connect between different SQL Server instances without too much hassle and application development overhead. But, if not configured correctly, they can also serve as a dangerous security vulnerability.

How do I find linked server connections in SQL query? ›

  1. Syntax. Copy. ...
  2. Arguments. [ @servername = ]servername Is the name of the linked server. ...
  3. Result Sets. None.
  4. Permissions. No permissions are checked; however, the caller must have the appropriate login mapping.
  5. Examples. The following example creates a linked server named SEATTLESales , and then tests the connection. ...
  6. See Also.
29 Jan 2021

How can I tell how many connections SQL Server has? ›

Answer
  1. Open SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. Click New Query.
  3. Enter the following query: SELECT a.* FROM. (SELECT. DB_NAME(dbid) as DBName, COUNT(dbid) as NumberOfConnections, loginame as LoginName. FROM. sys.sysprocesses. WHERE. dbid > 0. GROUP BY. dbid, loginame) a. ...
  4. Press F5 or click Execute to run the query.
21 Jan 2021

How do I find linked servers? ›

You can check each one by going into SQL Server Management Studio, Server Objects, Linked Servers. Right-click on each server and look at its security information. That's the account it's using to connect to the other SQL Server.

Do people actually use linked lists? ›

Linked lists are often used because of their efficient insertion and deletion. They can be used to implement stacks, queues, and other abstract data types.

Do people still use linked lists? ›

Conclusion. There is a time and a place to use linked lists and most commonly it's when you want quickly add and remove elements from a container. Usually this occurs in stacks and queues with lower space time complexity over arrays or when you want to keep ordered data with more flexibility than arrays.

Where are Linkedlist used in real life? ›

Previous and next page in a web browser – We can access the previous and next URL searched in a web browser by pressing the back and next buttons since they are linked as a linked list. Music Player – Songs in the music player are linked to the previous and next songs.

How can we prevent linked server in SQL Server? ›

The way to avoid them is to put databases on same server or use replication to keep data on local server.

How do I change the data source of a linked server? ›

Go to start-administrative tools and open the data sources(odbc) then click on system dsn, here you will find the linked server dsn name. From here you can edit the properties of linked server. You can also test the connection.

How do I add a database to an existing linked server? ›

You need to use CREATE USER sql command to add the user to the database and also need to add appropriate level of read/write access to the objects. You may also want to add that user to db_owner or ddl_admin or sysadmin to be able to read the statistics otherwise you may NOT get good performance. Some references below.

How do I list all SQL servers on network? ›

To list all the SQL instances, navigate to the root directory and run the Get-Childitem to get the list. Note: The path SQLSERVER:\SQL\<ServerName> has all the installed SQL instances of the listed server.

How can I see all tables in a schema? ›

The easiest way to find all tables in SQL is to query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA views. You do this by specifying the information schema, then the “tables” view. Here's an example. SELECT table_name, table_schema, table_type FROM information_schema.

How are tables linked together? ›

Linking tables

Two tables are linked when they have a matching field, that is, a field in each table containing similar data. For example, suppose you want to link a Suppliers table with another table called Products. Both tables must have at least one field in common.

Can SQL Server link to any other server? ›

Linked Servers are a method by which a SQL Server can talk to another ODBC compliant database, such as another SQL Server instance or an Oracle database, with a direct T-SQL query. There are several important settings to know when setting up a Linked Server.

How do I transfer data between two databases? ›

  1. Right click on the database you want to copy.
  2. 'Tasks' > 'Export Data'
  3. Next, Next.
  4. Choose the database to copy the tables to.
  5. Mark 'Copy data from one or more tables or views'
  6. Choose the tables you want to copy.
  7. Finish.
5 Apr 2012

How do you get data from another table without join? ›

How to Join Tables in SQL Without Using JOINs
  1. Using a comma between the table names in the FROM clause and specifying the joining condition in a WHERE.
  2. Using UNION / UNION ALL .
9 Dec 2021

How can I tell if SQL Server is accessing remote connections? ›

Using SQL Server Management Studio

In Object Explorer, right-click a server and select Properties. Select the Connections node. Under Remote server connections, select or clear the Allow remote connections to this server check box.

Can you access SQL database from anywhere? ›

SQL Anywhere allows access to the following external data sources: SQL Anywhere.

How do I access a remote database using IP address? ›

Before connecting to MySQL from another computer, the connecting computer must be enabled as an Access Host.
  1. Log into cPanel and click the Remote MySQL icon, under Databases.
  2. Type in the connecting IP address, and click the Add Host button. ...
  3. Click Add, and you should now be able to connect remotely to your database.

Are Linked servers slower? ›

Executing a query against views on a linked server remotely takes more time than executing the same query directly against a base table on the linked server.

How do I connect two SQL Server databases? ›

Create a linked server with SSMS
  1. Open Object Explorer.
  2. Expand Server Objects.
  3. Right-click Linked Servers.
  4. Select New Linked Server.
4 Feb 2022

Is temp table better than CTE? ›

Looking at SQL Profiler results from these queries (each were run 10 times and averages are below) we can see that the CTE just slightly outperforms both the temporary table and table variable queries when it comes to overall duration.

What is the fastest SQL? ›

SQL Server 2017 is the fastest database everywhere you need it. Whether it is your laptop, in your private cloud, or in our Azure public cloud infrastructure. Whether it is running on Linux, Windows, or Docker Containers, we have the speed to power any workload your application needs.

Is CTE better than join? ›

CTE can explain logic better than complicated Left Join. thanks. so as i understood, you believe that it should to use first sample in simple cases and when Location clause get more complicated it's better to use CTE.

How do I block users access to linked servers? ›

On Linked Server Properties dialog box, Properties tab; add users that you don't want to access the linked server. Then, assign them some dummy user/pass combination that will be rejected on target server.

What are the three 3 categories of threats to security? ›

The three most general categories are natural threats (such as earthquakes), physical security threats (such as power outages damaging equipment), and human threats (blackhat attackers who can be internal or external.)

What are the 3 types of security risks? ›

Top 5 Types of Security Threats to Look Out for in 2022
  • Ransomware.
  • Insider threats.
  • Phishing attacks.
  • Cloud attacks.
  • Malvertising attacks.
19 Nov 2021

How do you write a query for a linked server? ›

A Linked Server can be configured by using SQL Server Management Studio or using the sp_addlinkedserver T-SQL statement. In order to configure a linked server using SQL Server Management Studio, expand the Server Objects node from the Object Explorer window.

How many SQL connections is too many? ›

By default, SQL Server allows a maximum of 32767 concurrent connections which is the maximum number of users that can simultaneously log in to the SQL server instance.

How many connections can a server handle at once? ›

For all the requests it gets, it establishes a new socket. And since there are only 65535 TCP ports, it means that a server cannot have more than that amount of concurrent connections . How can then some website serve millions of request every minute (considering there's one single server)?

How many active connections can a server handle? ›

Remember that connections are multiplexed with a 5-tuple: source address, destination address, source port, destination port, and protocol number. For any source/destination pair in TCP, you can maintain around 65,000 simultaneous connections to a specific port (eg, http or https).

How can I tell if a SQL Server server is linked? ›

Use Sql Profiler

Run SQL server Profiler for a month against the target server (on a spare machine) to see if the linked server login name appears, this is the login name of the connection set up in the linked server configuration.

How do I script all linked servers in SQL Server? ›

Right click on a Linked Server provides one with the option to generate a script out of it. Be aware that the Remote Passwords entered in the Linked Server are not exported. The example of generated script: USE [master] GO /****** Object: LinkedServer [LSName] Script Date: 30.06.

How do I link two different SQL servers? ›

Follow these steps to create a Linked Server:
  1. Server Objects -> Linked Servers -> New Linked Server.
  2. Provide Remote Server Name.
  3. Select Remote Server Type (SQL Server or Other).
  4. Select Security -> Be made using this security context and provide login and password of remote server.
  5. Click OK and you are done !!
17 Jul 2009

How can I link two SQL Server queries? ›

How do I link two SQL servers so I can run queries between them?
  1. Link the servers - sp_addlinkedserver [{Remote Server Name}]
  2. Set login information (only required if your connection isn't trusted) - sp_addlinkedsrvlogin '{Remote Server Name}', 'false', NULL, '{User Name}', '{Password}'

How are database tables linked? ›

A table relationship works by matching data in key fields — often a field with the same name in both tables. In most cases, these matching fields are the primary key from one table, which provides a unique identifier for each record, and a foreign key in the other table.

How do I add a linked server to SQL Server query? ›

Edit the Security page for the linked server properties
  1. Select Add.
  2. Specify a Local login. Specify the local login that can connect to the linked server. The local login can be either a login using SQL Server Authentication or a Windows Authentication login. Using a Windows group is not supported.
4 Feb 2022

Can 2 servers have the same domain? ›

Yes, its perfectly normal and an often used scenario. Just configure your, for example, Apache server with the same virtual host(s) on both webservers. Remember that hostname/domain is a separate thing from IP address, so server A will have one IP, server B will have another.

How many connections SQL Server can handle? ›

By default, SQL Server allows a maximum of 32767 concurrent connections which is the maximum number of users that can simultaneously log in to the SQL server instance.

Are Linked servers secure? ›

Linked Servers are an easy way to connect between different SQL Server instances without too much hassle and application development overhead. But, if not configured correctly, they can also serve as a dangerous security vulnerability.

Can SQL handle multiple connections? ›

By default, SQL Server allows a maximum of 32767 concurrent connections which is the maximum number of users that can simultaneously log in to the SQL server instance.

Can I run 2 SQL queries at once? ›

You can include multiple SQL statements on the SQL query panel. The exceptions are CALL and CREATE PROCEDURE statements.

What is the basic rule for linking two tables? ›

What is the basic rule to join 2 tables ? Joining more than two tablesJoins are not limited to two tables. You can join more than two tables in a single SQL statement. Inner joinsAn inner join is a method of combining two tables that discards rows of either table that do not match any row of the other table.

What is the purpose of linking tables? ›

With the use of link tables, it's possible to keep the facttables separated from each other. The advantage of this solution for choosing this method is to keep the datamodel a logical one.

How can we check the relationship between tables in SQL Server? ›

Using SQL Server Management Studio

Open the Table Designer for the table containing the foreign key you want to view, right-click in the Table Designer, and choose Relationships from the shortcut menu. In the Foreign Key Relationships dialog box, select the relationship with properties you want to view.

How do I modify a linked server? ›

In SQL Server management Studio click right on the linked server, choose "Script Linked Server as' then choose 'DROP and CREATE to' and then "New Query Editor Window'. You can now adjust any settings that you want to adjust in the script and then run it. The existing linked server will be dropped and a new one created.

Can we insert data using linked server? ›

To insert to a "local" table using a linked server, just use the insert into as with any other table but using the fully qualified name.

Videos

1. Create Linked Servers in SQL Server | sql server linked server creation
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4. It's just SQL: Linked Servers in Azure SQL Database Managed Instance | Data Exposed
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