Reference List: Electronic Sources // Purdue Writing Lab (2022)

Note:This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 stylecan be found here.

Important Note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets. APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces (e.g., [bracketed content] should look like this). When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Additionally, APA 7thedition no longer requires the use of “Retrieved from” before URLs or DOIs; special exceptions, however, are made for resources that are unarchived. Including the retrieval date for these sources indicates to readers that the version of the work they retrieve may be different than what was originally used.

Please note: the following contains a list of the most commonly cited electronic sources. For a complete list of how to cite electronic sources, please refer to the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

If the page names an individual author, cite their name first:

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

Price, D. (2018, March 23). Laziness does not exist. Medium.

If the resource was written by a group or organization, use the name of the group/organization as the author. Additionally, if the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the citation.

Group name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site name. URL

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (2019, November 21). Justice served: Case closed for over 40 dogfighting victims.

If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. Additionally, include a retrieval date when the page's content is likely to change over time (like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited).

Title of page. (Year, Month Date). Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Tuscan white bean pasta.(2018, February 25). Budgetbytes. Retrieved March 18, 2020, from

If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation (n.d.).

Author or Group name. (n.d.).Title of page. Site name (if applicable). URL

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (n.d.). Mental health conditions.

Wikipedia Article

APA 7 treats Wikipedia articles as special instances of entries in reference works. Thus, there are a few differences between reference entries for pages on Wikipedia and those for generic webpages.

Title of article. (Year, Month Date). InWikipedia.URL of archived version of page

Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). In Wikipedia.

(Video) Purdue OWL: APA Formatting: Reference List Basics

Wikipedia articles often update frequently. For this reason, the date refers to the date that the cited version of the page was published. Note also that the manual recommends linking to the archived version of the page, rather than the current version of the page on the site, since the latter can change over time. Access the archived version by clicking "View History," then clicking the date/timestamp of the version you'd like to cite.

Online Scholarly Journal Article: Citing DOIs

Please note: Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document.

Note also that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed." This button will usually lead the user to the full article which will include the DOI. Find DOIs from print publications or ones that go to dead links with's "Resolve a DOI" function, available on the site's home page.

APA 7also advises writers to include a DOI (if available), even when using the print source.

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Vol.(Issue), page numbers. DOI

Drollinger, T., Comer, L. B., & Warrington, P. T. (2006). Development and validation of the active empathetic listening scale. Psychology & Marketing, 23(2), 161-180.

Article from an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned

If an online scholarly journal article has no DOI and is published on a website, include the URL. If an online scholarly article has no DOI and is published on a database, do not include a URL or any database information. The only exception is for databases that publish articles that are in limited circulation (like ERIC) or that are only available on that particular database (like UpToDate). Note that retrieval dates are required for unarchived sources that are likely, or intended, to change over time.

Perreault, L. (2019). Obesity in adults: Role of physical activity and exercise. UpToDate. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from


APA 7th edition does not provide guidance on how to cite abstracts. However, if you only use information from the abstract but the full text of the article is also available, we advise you to add "[Abstract]" after the article or source name. If the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source.

Online News Article

Note:The format for this type of source depends on whether your source comes from a site with an associated newspaper.

If the sourcedoescome from a site with an associated newspaper, leave the title of the article unformatted, but italicize the title of the newspaper.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Richards, C. (2019, December 9). Best music of 2019: Lana Del Rey sings lullabies about the end of America. Washington Post.

On the other hand, if the sourcedoesn'tcome from a site with an associated newspaper, italicize the title of the article, but leave the name of the site unformatted.

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Name of publishing website. URL

Jones, J. (2020, May 10). Why flats dominate Spain's housing market. BBC.

Electronic or Kindle Books

It is not necessary to note that you have used an eBook or audiobook when the content is the same as a physical book. However, you should distinguish between the eBook or audiobook and the print version if the content is different or abridged, or if you would like to cite the narrator of an audiobook.

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year).Title of book [eBook edition]. Publisher. URL

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of book (N. Narrator, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Publisher. URL (if applicable)

(Video) Purdue OWL Citing Electronic Sources

Dissertation/Thesis from a Database

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding Degree]. Database Name.

Duis, J. M. (2008). Acid/base chemistry and related organic chemistry conceptions of undergraduate organic chemistry students(Publication No. 3348786) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author

Note:An online dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia may be continuously updated and therefore not include a publication date (like in the example below). If that’s the case, use “n.d.” for the date and include the retrieval date in the citation.

Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Braggadocio. In dictionary. Retrieved January 13, 2020, from

Entry in an Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author

Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition). Publisher. URL or DOI

Note: If the dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia does not include an edition, simply skip that step.

Data Sets

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group (Year). Title of dataset (Version No.) [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Grantmakers in the Arts. (2019). Arts funding trends, United States, 1994-present (ICPSR 37337) [Data set]. National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture.

Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps, Infographics, and Other Graphic Representations of Data)

Give the name of the organization or individual followed by the date and the title. If there is no title, in brackets, you should provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Include the URL and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.

HatchMed. (2017). 8 ways to improve patient satisfaction [Infographic].

Google. (n.d.). [Google Map of Purdue University]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from,-86.9233886,17z

Qualitative Data and Online Interviews

If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text (not in the reference list) and provide the month, day, and year in the text. If the interview transcript is published in an online periodical, like a magazine, cite the interview the same way you would cite the medium where it is published, as shown below:

(Video) APA 7th Edition: References | Part I

Schulman, M. (2019, December 8). Peter Dinklage is still punk rock. The New Yorker.

If it is an audio file or transcript published in a database, credit the interviewee as the author and use the following model:

Paynter, W. (1970, September 17). Interview with Will Paynter [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum.

Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of presentation [Lecture notes, PowerPoint slides, etc]. Publisher. URL

Smith, C. (2017, October 13). AI and machine learning demystified [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Computer Software/Downloaded Software

Do not cite standard office software (e.g. Word, Excel) or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year). Title of software (Version No.). Publisher. URL

Maplesoft. (2019). Maple companion (Version 2.1.0). Cybernet Systems Co.


E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you should parenthetically cite them in your main text:

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).

Online Forum or Discussion Posting

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of post [Online forum post]. Publisher. URL

Stine, R. L. [RL__Stine]. (2013, October 23). I’m R.L. Stine and it’s my job to terrify kids. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit.


Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words[Tweet]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the tweet includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to article]. Twitter.

Twitter Profile

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

MLA Style [@mlastyle]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from

(Video) Dictionary Entry Reference Citation Example

Facebook Post

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

Note: If the Facebook post includes images, videos, or links to other sources, indicate that information in brackets after the content description. Also attempt to replicate emojis if possible.

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 10). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Facebook Page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site name. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL

Little River Canyon National Preserve (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020 from

Instagram Photo or Video

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

BBC [@bbc]. (2020, January 12). Skywatchers have been treated to the first full moon of 2020-known as a “wolf moon”-at the same time as a [Photograph]. Instagram.

Blog Post

Lastname, F. M. (Year, Month Date). Title of post. Publisher. URL

Axelrod, A. (2019, August 11). A century later: The Treaty of Versailles and its rejection of racial equality. Code Switch, NPR.

YouTube or other Streaming Video

Last Name, F. M. [Username]. (Year, Month Date). Title of video [Video]. Streaming Service. URL

Lushi, K. [Korab Lushi]. (2016, July 3). Albatross culture 1 [Video]. YouTube.

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username].

Ted Talk

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. TED. URL

Al-Mutawa, N. (2010, July). Superheroes inspired by Islam [Video]. TED.

Or (if on YouTube)

Username. (Year, Month Date). Title of talk [Video]. YouTube. URL

Tedx Talks. (2011, Nov. 15). TEDxHampshireCollege - Jay Smooth - How I learned to stop worrying and love discussing race [Video]. YouTube.

Podcast Episode

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. URL

(Video) Citing Electronic Sources Using Purdue's OWL


How many references do you use for et al? ›

“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries. Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.

How do you write an electronic reference in APA format? ›

Include information in the following order:
  1. author name and initial, or group name, followed by social media identity information (provide the author's screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, provide it without brackets.
  2. date. ...
  3. title. ...
  4. format. ...
  5. source url. ...
  6. retrieval date.

Should APA 7 references be hyperlinked? ›

ACAP recommends the use of live, blue hyperlinks in reference lists. Remember to be consistent throughout the entire document. See also the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines for more information.

Are citation generators accurate? ›

Make sure to use reputable, accurate sources.

Citation generators work with the sources you give them. They can't evaluate whether those sources are good or not. This means that it's possible to use a citation generator to assemble a bibliography that's technically flawless, but nevertheless useless.

Do you use et al for 3 authors Harvard? ›

“Et al.” is used in Harvard style to indicate that a source has four or more authors. By using “et al.”, writers can also avoid having very long citations that list every single author.

Does et al need a full stop? ›

This is abbreviated to et al. (with a full stop at the end) and it is used in a citation when you have three authors or more. This makes your citation more manageable. When using the authors name in your writing you should include the full stop after et al.

How do you write a full reference to an electronic source in the list of references? ›

To cite your electronic sources in text, use the APA guidelines for print sources. For direct quotation of a specific passage, cite author, date, page (Anakwe, Igbaria, & Anandarajan, 2010, p. 2) or According to Anakwe, Igbaria, and Anandarajan (2010), “Most management research is privately funded” (p. 2).

What is included in a reference to an electronic source? ›

Author. (Publication date). Title of document. Publishing information or electronic retrieval information.

How do we cite electronic resources within a research paper in APA? ›

Common citation elements for electronic resources include:
  1. author/editor.
  2. publication or update date.
  3. article title.
  4. journal title.
  5. the type of medium (i.e. CD-ROM, online, etc.)
  6. volume and/or pages.
  7. a source statement (e.g. URL, electronic database vendor, email address, etc.)
  8. date you accessed the resource online.

What should an APA 7th reference list look like? ›

For APA the reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames. Arrange by first author's name, then by second author if you have the same first author, etc. (check the page on Authors for how to lay out the reference if you have more than one author).

Should I remove hyperlinks in references? ›

The APA Style blog recommends having active links (hyperlinks) if your document is electronic (Microsoft Word document, PowerPoint, etc.). If your document will be printed, the APA Style blog recommends removing the hyperlinks.

Do you remove hyperlinks in references? ›

You should keep hyperlinks active. Consider your reader and the paper's final delivery method (print or digital) when deciding whether to format links as blue text with underline or as plain text.

What are three cons of using citation generators? ›

Cons: Only offers MLA and APA. Doesn't offer the most current versions. Blocks access to versions that are being upgraded. Requires user to have some knowledge of punctuation for various field.

What is the most accurate citation generator? ›

Best Citation Generator Tools
  • Mendeley Cite.
  • Zotero.
  • EndNote.
  • Paperpile.
  • Cite This for Me.
  • Citation Machine.
  • EasyBib.
  • BibMe.
4 Oct 2022

How do you reference the same source twice? ›

Yes, you can abbreviate the subsequent citations of the source. If the subsequent citation is in the footnote immediately following the full citation, you can use 'ibid'. Used alone, 'ibid' means 'in the very same place' – in other words, the same source and the same page or paragraph as the preceding full citation.

How do you cite if there are 3 authors? ›

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author's name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period.

How do you cite two sources with the same author? ›

In the Works Cited (Per the MLA Handbook (9th edition), p. 221: To cite two or more works by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. Thereafter, in place of the name, type three hyphens, followed by a period and the title. The three hyphens stand for exactly the same name as in the preceding entry.

Is it OK to use et al in email? ›

in an Email. Use it in an email greeting by saying, “Dear Mr. Smith et al.,” when there is more than one recipient. For punctuation, always follow the abbreviation with a period since it's short for “et alia” or “and others.”

Do you use et al for 3 authors APA? ›

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

If there are three or more authors, only include the first author's last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”. Group authors known by their abbreviations (e.g., CDC) are written in full the first time and are abbreviated in subsequent citations.

How many authors use et al APA 7? ›

When you have 3 or more authors, you only use the first author's surname in text, and abbreviate the rest of the list with "et al." (Latin for "and others"). In your reference list, you list all of the authors (up to 20).

What are the 4 electronic sources? ›

More Tips for Referencing Electronic Sources

e-mail. e-journal. database. Internet.

Is a PDF an electronic source? ›

A PDF, after all, is not really a source itself, but rather a file type and a way to display a source. For example, if the source you wish to cite is a PDF of a newspaper article, cite the source as you would a newspaper.

How do you in text cite electronic sources MLA? ›

Cite web postings as you would a standard web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.

What does a reference list contain? ›

A reference list contains details of all sources cited in text. A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title. A reference list is generally placed at the end of a work.

What is electronic reference citation? ›

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References says to "format references to technical and research reports and other gray literature as you would a book retrieved online." Thus, a reference to an annual report follows the usual who-when-what-where format. For example, American Psychological Association. ( 2013).

What is an electronic reference work? ›

What is E-Reference? Electronic Reference materials are sources of information in the form of online encyclopedias, dictionaries, timelines, handbooks, and guides. These resources provide reliable and accurate quick facts, definitions, and background information on any topic.

How do you cite online sources both in text and in references? ›

Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.).

How do you format an electronic source citation without page numbers? ›

"When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Use the heading or section name, an abbreviated heading or section name, a paragraph number (para. 1), or a combination of these."

Is APA 7 references double spaced? ›

All references should be double spaced with a 0.5 in or 1.27 cm hanging indent (APA, 2020, p.

How should reference list be written? ›

Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.

Do you need page numbers in APA reference list? ›

Yes, page numbers are included on all pages, including the title page, table of contents, and reference page. Page numbers should be right-aligned in the page header.

Are links included in citations? ›

“A citation is any mention of your business out on the web, with or without a link.

Should hyperlinks always be blue? ›

Shades of blue provide the strongest signal for links, but other colors work almost as well. As always, when using color to signal information, you should provide redundant cues for color-blind users.

Is a DOI the same as a URL? ›

DOIs can be found in database records and the reference lists of published works. A URL specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser.

How DOI remove a link from a reference list? ›

You can also select all text (control + A), then do Ctrl + Shift + F9. That will unlink all references from their citations.

How do you put a URL in a reference? ›

The URL, or Uniform Resource Locator is the hyperlink or web address of the work you are citing: The URL always comes at the end of the reference list entry. Use if there is no doi. Journal articles may provide a digital object identifier (doi) on the first page of the article or in the article details.

How do you shorten a URL for referencing? ›

Here's how to shorten a URL.
  1. Copy the URL you want to shorten.
  2. Open Bitly in your web browser.
  3. Paste the URL into the "Shorten your link" field and click Shorten. Just paste your URL in the field and you're ready to shorten it. Stefan Ionescu/Insider.
  4. Click Copy to grab the new URL.
8 Apr 2022

How do you cite 4 authors in APA? ›

APA in-text citations with multiple authors

If a work has two authors, separate their names with an ampersand (&) in a parenthetical citation or “and” in a narrative citation. If there are three or more authors, only include the first author's last name followed by “et al.”, meaning “and others”.

How many references should I have for a 1500 word essay? ›

Generally, you need to use one to two references for the point you are trying to make. Roughly, for a 1500-word essay, this makes a minimum of 10 references. This, however, also depends on the topic or the subject you are covering in the essay.

How do you cite 5 authors? ›

Provide all the authors' last names when you first refer to a document with 3-5 authors. Only list the first author with the Latin abbreviation "et al." for any subsequent references. Example: Jones, Chavez, Jackson, and Chen (2010) duplicated...

How many references should a 4000 word essay have? ›

Article Size (Word Count)Median Number of References
(3000, 4000]36
(4000, 5000]44
(5000, 6000]51
(6000, 7000]57
5 more rows

How do you cite more than 3 authors in APA? ›

A Work by Three or More Authors

List only the first author's name followed by “et al.” in every citation, even the first, unless doing so would create ambiguity between different sources. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only "al" should be followed by a period.

How do you in text cite APA 7 with multiple authors? ›

Number of Authors to Include in In-text Citations

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity.

How do you cite 3 or more authors? ›

NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year. References: Author Surname, First Initial.

Can you write a 3000 word essay in 3 days? ›

Writing 3,000 words can take anywhere between six and 24 hours depending on the topic but, with our tips, you can easily get it done within a day. Get your head down and you could meet the deadline, and even produce an essay you are proud of.

How many citations should a 5000 word essay have? ›

3000 word essay: 20 sources (or more) listed in the reference list. 5000 word essay: 33 sources (or more) listed in the reference list.

How many references does a 3000 word essay need? ›

If you're multi-referencing the same point, it'd look better than if you had 40 single-references in my opinion, as this would require being very brief for only 3000 words. But essentially, 40 is not too many, it just really depends how you've structured your essay/used your references.

How do you cite 5 or more authors in APA? ›

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

How do you write references with many authors? ›

For the in-text citation for a book with eight or more authors, include the first author and then 'et al. '. Include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points and add the last author name in the Reference List.

How do you cite more than 5 authors in APA? ›

List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the first 19 authors' names, use an ellipsis in place of the remaining author names. Then, end with the final author's name (do not place an ampersand before it). There should be no more than twenty names in the citation in total.

How many references is enough? ›

How many references do you need? Typically you should have at least three references who you're comfortable offering up. If you're early in your career and have only had one or two jobs, employers will generally understand if you only have one or two references from managers.

How many references do I need for a 700 word essay? ›

Given that all the references are likely to come in the body of your essay, and that takes about 75% of the word count, then you're probably looking at one peer-reviewed reference for roughly every 200 words, based on a 2500 word essay.

How many references do I need for 10000 words? ›

D. Bachelors: A Bachelors level dissertation contains words from 10,000 to 12,000. For this type of word count, 45 to 50 references will most likely be needed at least and the maximum, 100 reference will also be a respectable benchmark to add references.


1. APA 7th Edition: References | Part II
2. APA Reference Lists: A More Detailed Explanation
3. Purdue OWL: MLA Formatting: List of Works Cited
4. Citing Sources in APA Format
(Wayne State University Libraries)
5. APA Reference List
(Fast Track ESL)
6. DAY 2 Purdue OWL APA Formatting Reference List Basics
(Professor Hochman)

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